Bibliography

A Compilation of References Cited in this Online Manual

Hydrogen Properties

Babrauskas, Vytenis. "Ignition Handbook" Fire Science Publishers, Issaquah, WA.

B. Lewis and G. von Elbe, Combustion, Flames and Explosions of Gases, 3rd ed., Academic Press, Orlando, 1987, pg. 717.

CGA G-5, Hydrogen

CGA H-4, Terminology Associated with Hydrogen Fuel Technologies

CRC Recent Developments in Hydrogen Technology, Volume II. Editors K. D. Williamson, Jr. and Frederick J. Edeskuty, CRC Press, Inc. Boca Raton, Florida 1986. See Chapter 2, “Hydrogen Behavior and Nuclear Safety” by Marshall Berman, p. 35.

F.J. Edeskuty and W.F. Stewart, Safety in the Handling of Cryogenic Fluids, Plenum Press, New York, 1996, pg. 102.

G-095-2004, ANSI/AIAA Guide to Safety of Hydrogen and Hydrogen Systems, can be purchased from www.aiaa.org.

The Hydrogen Data Book and Basic Hydrogen Properties

J. Hord, Is Hydrogen Safe? National Bureau of Standards (NBS) Technical Note 690, October 1976.

R. D. McCarty, J. Hord and H. M. Roder, NBS Monograph 168, Selected Properties of Hydrogen (Engineering Design Data), Center for Chemical Engineering, National Engineering Laboratory, National Bureau of Standards, Boulder, CO 80303, published by U.S. Department of Commerce, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 1981.

Safety Culture

The American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE) Center for Chemical Process Safety (CCPS) invites chemical, petroleum, and other companies to use the materials found on their website to evaluate their company's process safety culture and to develop improvement strategies.

CCPS Process Safety Beacon -- June 2007 (pdf, 101 kb)

Chevron Operational Excellence Management System (OEMS) (pdf, 2.58 mb)

DOE Hydrogen Safety Facts (pdf, 386 kb)

ExxonMobil Operations Integrity Management System (OIMS) (pdf, 787 kb)

Guidelines for the Management of Change for Process Safety, AIChE Center for Chemical Process Safety, John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY, 2008.

Integrated Safety Management (ISM)

ISMS Description - April 2007 (pdf, 667 kb) ~ Section 2.1 Safety Management Guiding Principles

A list of available hydrogen safety training programs is available on the website of the National Hydrogen Association.

A number of NFPA codes discuss requirements for implementing a MOC process, including NFPA 1

OSHA 1910.119, Requirements for preventing or minimizing the consequences of catastrophic releases of toxic, reactive, flammable, or explosive chemicals. These releases may result in toxic, fire or explosion hazards.

OSHA's Voluntary Protection Program (VPP)

Management of Change, U.S. Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board, Safety Bulletin No. 2001-04-SB, August 2001. (pdf, 163 kb)

Safety Fact Sheet (pdf, 64 kb)

Safety Planning

A number of tutorials, research papers, book and software reviews related to Fault Tree Analysis are given at www.fault-tree.net

Bahr, N.J. (1997). "System Safety Engineering and Risk Assessment: A Practical Approach." Taylor & Francis, New York.

CCPS Process Safety Beacon, January 2012

Ordin, P.M. "A Review of Hydrogen Accidents and Incidents in NASA Operations," Proceedings of the 9th Intersociety Energy Conversion Engineering Conference, American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 1974. (pdf, )

OSHA 1910.119 - Requirements for preventing or minimizing the consequences of catastrophic releases of toxic, reactive, flammable, or explosive chemicals. These releases may result in toxic, fire or explosion hazards.

Safety Plan Checklist, April 2010. (pdf, 133 kb)

Safety Planning Guidance for Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Projects, April 2010. (pdf, 297 kb)

Incident Procedures

Fragment evacuation distance criteria can be found in the ANSI/AIAA Guide to Safety of Hydrogen and Hydrogen Systems (G-095-2004).

CGA P-28, Risk Management Plan Guidance Document for Bulk Liquid Hydrogen Systems

CGA P-29, Application of OSHA PSM and EPA RMP to the Compressed Gas Industry

Visit the OSHA web site for Evacuation Plans and Procedures.

G-095-2004, ANSI/AIAA Guide to Safety of Hydrogen and Hydrogen Systems.

Hydrogen Safety Tips for First Responders (pdf, 2 mb)

Web-based training program Introduction to Hydrogen Safety for First Responders is available from the U.S. Department of Energy web site.

Safe limits for thermal radiation exposure for personnel and equipment cover a wide range and are listed in the appendix of NASA STD 8719.16. (pdf, 3 mb)

See NFPA 1561 for Incident Management System guidance. (pdf, 29.3 kb)

OSHA requirements are available at www.osha.gov.

Air Products Safetygram for Gaseous Hydrogen (pdf, 161 kb)

Air Products Safetygram for Liquid Hydrogen (pdf, 122 kb)

Communications

ASME A13.1, Scheme for the Identification of Piping Systems can be purchased online.

Title 49 of the Code of Federal Regulations (49 CFR) "Transportation"

DOE Hydrogen Safety Facts (pdf, 386 kb)

Generic MSDS (pdf, 25 kb)

NFPA 704 "Standard System for the Identification of the Hazards of Materials for Emergency Response" can be purchased online.

OSHA 29 CFR 1910.1200, Hazard Communication

Safety alerts from AIChE CCPS

Safety alerts from Mary Kay O'Connor Process Safety Center

Safety Beacon from CCPS (pdf, 162 kb)

Safety Fact Sheet (pdf, 64 kb)

Facility Design Considerations

ANSI Pressure Piping Code (www.ansi.org)

ASME B31.3, Process Piping Code is available for purchase online.

B. Lewis and G. von Elbe, “Combustion, Flames and Explosions of Gases,” 3rd ed., Academic Press, Orlando, 1987, pg. 717.

Babrauskas, Vytenis. “Ignition Handbook.” Fire Science Publishers, Issaquah, WA.

CGA G-5, Hydrogen

CGA G-5.4 - Standard for Hydrogen Piping Systems at Consumer Locations

CGA G-5.5 - Hydrogen Vent Systems

CGA H-4, Terminology Associated with Hydrogen Fuel Technologies

CGA PS-21, CGA Position Statement on Adjacent Storage of Compressed Hydrogen and Other Flammable Gases

DoD 6055.9 "DoD Ammunition and Explosives Safety Standards" (pdf, 4.51 mb)

F.J. Edeskuty and W.F. Stewart, “Safety in the Handling of Cryogenic Fluids,” Plenum Press, New York, 1996, pg. 102.

G-095-2004, ANSI/AIAA Guide to Safety of Hydrogen and Hydrogen Systems.

The Hydrogen Data Book and Basic Hydrogen Properties are available on the Hydrogen Analysis Resource Center website.

"Hydrogen Mixing in Large Enclosures", safety lecture by Robert Zalosh.

ISO 15916 - Basic consideration for the safety of hydrogen systems

J. Hord, “Is Hydrogen Safe?” National Bureau of Standards (NBS) Technical Note 690, October 1976.

NFPA 52, Vehicular Fuel Systems Code

NFPA 55, Standard for the Storage, Use, and Handling of Compressed Gases and Cryogenic Fluids in Portable and Stationary Containers, Cylinders, and Tanks

NFPA 68, Standard on Explosion Protection by Deflagration Venting

NFPA 70, National Electrical Code

Note: A zone system has also been developed, and is in use in Europe to classify hazardous places. See NFPA 70, Article 505.

NFPA 497, Recommended Practice for the Classification of Flammable Liquids, Gases, or Vapors and of Hazardous (Classified) Locations for Electrical Installations in Chemical Process Areas

Guidelines for safe quantity-distances for storage of gaseous and liquid hydrogen are provided in the NASA Glenn Safety Manual Chapter 6 - Hydrogen

OSHA standard 29 CFR 1910.103

Recommendations for detector placement (pdf, 212 kb)

Sandia National Laboratory's research on hydrogen jet flames may contribute to the development of codes and standards for separation distances between hydrogen storage vessels and other flammable materials and public spaces. For more Information, contact Chris Moen .

Technical Reference for Hydrogen Compatibility of Materials

Hydrogen Storage and Piping Systems

The ANSI/AIAA Guide to Safety of Hydrogen and Hydrogen Systems can be purchased from www.aiaa.org.

API 620 (pdf, 826 kb)

API STD 607/ISO 10497 - Fire Test for Soft-Seated Quarter-turn Valves

ASME B31.1, 2007 Power Piping is available for purchase online.

ASME B31.3 Process Piping Code is available for purchase online.

ASME B31.8, Gas Transmission and Distribution Systems

The code requirements for PRDs are covered by the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (BPVC).

ASME BPVC, Section VIII, Unfired Pressure Vessels

Title 49 of the Code of Federal Regulations (49 CFR) "Transportation"

CGA G-5.4 - Standard for Hydrogen Piping Systems at Consumer Locations

CGA-5.5, Hydrogen Vent Systems is a useful reference for those who design, install, or maintain hydrogen vent systems.

CGA G-5.6 (EIGA Doc 121), Hydrogen Pipeline Systems

CGA H-3, Cryogenic Hydrogen Storage

CGA P-12, Safe Handling of Cryogenic Liquids

CGA PS-17, CGA Position Statement on Underground Installation of Liquid Hydrogen Storage Tanks

CGA PS-20, CGA Position Statement on the Direct Burial of Gaseous Hydrogen Storage Tanks

CGA S1.3, Pressure Relief Device Standards-Part 3-Stationary Storage Containers for Compressed Gases

DoD 6055.9 "DoD Ammunition and Explosives Safety Standards" (pdf, 4.51 mb)

Edeskuty, Frederick J. and Walter F. Stewart. "Safety in the Handling of Cryogenic Fluids". Plenum Press, New York and London, 1996.

G-095-2004, ANSI/AIAA Guide to Safety of Hydrogen and Hydrogen Systems.

For more good practices related to labeling, see "Gas Cylinder Safety Guidelines", prepared by Iowa State University Environmental Health & Safety, Ames Laboratory Environment, Safety, Health & Assurance, August 1997. (pdf, 95 kb)

IGC Doc 15/06/E, Gaseous Hydrogen Stations (pdf, 716 kb)

IGC Doc 100/03/E, Hydrogen Cylinders and Transport Vessels (pdf, 2.08 mb)

IGC Doc 121/04/E, Hydrogen Transportation Pipelines (pdf, 562 kb)

The International Fuel Gas Code also regulates hydrogen systems.

Guidelines for safe quantity-distances for storage of gaseous and liquid hydrogen are provided in the NASA Glenn Safety Manual Chapter 6 - Hydrogen

The National Hydrogen Association website contains information on the properties of hydrogen.

NFPA 52, Vehicular Fuel Systems Code

NFPA 55, Standard for the Storage, Use, and Handling of Compressed Gases and Cryogenic Fluids in Portable and Stationary Containers, Cylinders, and Tanks

See OSHA 1910.103 for regulations on separation distances for hydrogen storage facilities.

R.F. Barron, Cryogenics Systems, 2nd ed. Oxford University Press, New York, 1985, pg. 411.

Safety in Storage, Handling and Distribution of Liquid Hydrogen (pdf, 100 kb)

Air Products Safetygram #4 for Gaseous Hydrogen (pdf, 161 kb)

Air Products Safetygram #9 for Liquid Hydrogen (pdf, 122 kb)

Sandia National Laboratory's research on hydrogen jet flames may contribute to the development of codes and standards for separation distances between hydrogen storage vessels and other flammable materials and public spaces. For more Information, contact

See the Sandia Compatible Materials Website for more information.

U.S. DOT 49 CFR 173

Development of Operating Procedures

OSHA requires written operating procedures for the use of hydrogen:
29 CFR 1910.103

OSHA requires written operating procedures for process safety management of highly hazardous chemicals: 29 CFR 1910.119

G-095-2004, ANSI/AIAA Guide to Safety of Hydrogen and Hydrogen Systems, paragraph 7.1.8

Equipment Maintenance and Integrity

API Recommended Practice 578, Material Verification Program for New and Existing Alloy Piping Systems,1st Edition, May 1999 IHS Product Code API CERT 578 (pdf, 21 kb)

ASME BPVC, Section VIII, Unfired Pressure Vessels

OSHA's primary PPE standards are in Title 29 of the Code of Federal Regulations (29 CFR), Part 1910 Subpart I.

Title 49 of the Code of Federal Regulations (49 CFR) "Transportation"

Dangers of Purging Gas Piping into Buildings, U.S. Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board, Safety Bulletin No. 2009-12-I-NC, September 2009.

G-095-2004, ANSI/AIAA Guide to Safety of Hydrogen and Hydrogen Systems.

IDCON: Preventative Maintenance/Essential Care and Condition Monitoring (PM/ECCM)

Operations & Maintenance Best Practices Release 2.0, PNNL, July 2004. (pdf, 2.2 MB)

OSHA 1910.119, Requirements for preventing or minimizing the consequences of catastrophic releases of toxic, reactive, flammable, or explosive chemicals. These releases may result in toxic, fire or explosion hazards.

OSHA standard 1910.147, The control of hazardous energy (lockout/tagout) can be purchased online.

"Safe Use of Hydrogen and Hydrogen Systems," NASA Hydrogen Safety Course, August, 2004.

Management of Change, U.S. Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board, Safety Bulletin No. 2001-04-SB, August 2001. (pdf, 163 kb)

Positive Material Verification: Prevent Errors During Alloy Steel Systems Maintenance, U.S. Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board, Safety Bulletin No. 2005-04-B, October 2006 (pdf, 319 kb).

Laboratory Safety

Agilent Technologies, Hydrogen Safety Guide

Air Products Safetygram #34, The Toxic Metal Hydrides (pdf, 537.24 kb)

American Chemical Society, "Safety in Academic Chemistry Laboratories" (pdf, 246 kb)

Ammonia Borane Material Safety Data Sheet

Ammonia-Borane and Related N-B-H Compounds and Materials: Safety Aspects, Properties and Applications (pdf, 418 kb)

ANSI/AIHA Z9.5 Laboratory Ventilation

ASME A13.1, Scheme for the Identification of Piping Systems can be purchased online.

ASME BPVC

CGA P-1, Safe Handling of Compressed Gases in Containers, Edition 11, August 2008.

"Gas Cylinder Safety Guidelines" (pdf, 95 kb)

Generic MSDS (pdf, 25 kb)

International Fuel Gas Code, Chapter 7 covers start-up testing.

LLNL's web-based training "DOE Hydrogen Safety". Module 3 - Pressure Safety (HS5094-DOEW).

LLNL's web-based training "DOE Hydrogen Safety". Module 4 - Cryogenic Safety (HS5094-DOEW).

LLNL's web-based training "DOE Hydrogen Safety". Module 5 - Emergency Response (HS5094-DOEW).

National Electrical Code requirements for ignition source control. (pdf, 495kb)

NFPA 13, Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems

NFPA 45, Standard on Fire Protection for Laboratories Using Chemicals

NFPA 55, Standard for the Storage, Use, and Handling of Compressed Gases and Cryogenic Fluids in Portable and Stationary Containers, Cylinders, and Tanks

NFPA 68, 2007 Standard on Explosion Protection by Deflagration Venting

NFPA 69, Standard on Explosion Prevention Systems

NFPA 91, Standard for Exhaust Systems for Air Conveying of Vapors

NFPA 255, Standard Method of Test of Surface Burning Characteristics of Building Materials

OSHA 29 CFR 1910.1200, Hazard Communication

OSHA 29CFR1910.120(q) Emergency Response Program to Hazardous Substance Releases

OSHA lab standard

Recommendations for Detector Placement (pdf, 212 kb)

Recommended Best Practices for the Characterization of Storage Properties of Hydrogen Storage Materials"

Safety Planning Guidance for Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Projects (pdf, 2971 kb)

Dedrick, D.E. SAND2007-4960, The reactivity of sodium alanates with O2, H2O, and CO2 (pdf, 4.36 mb)